In Pennsylvania it is legal to leave a dog chained outdoors as long as it has shelter to maintain its body heat, fresh water, and adequate food.
In my opinion, if your dog isn't part of your family why keep it? Dogs are pack animals and do not want to be alone much less tied outside in all kinds of weather. So, if you see an animal that does not appear to have shelter, food and water, call your local humane officers to have the animal checked on. It is also my opinion that if you aren't going to care for your pets and leave them to fend for themselves outdoors, you should not have them.
Following are some very basic tips for keeping pets safe and warm:
Short haired dogs should be taken outside for brief potty breaks when the weather is bitter cold. If outside for prolonged periods a coat may be required. Wipe their paws when returning home to remove salt or packed snow.
Outside dogs MUST have shelter adequate to maintain their body heat. The shelter must be insulated and have a flap or door. Straw is a great insulator if their is enough for the animal to burrow into. It would be better to bring the dog indoors when temperatures drop to freezing and below. Fresh water and food must be available. In freezing temperatures, the water must be checked frequently or a heater provided.
First and foremost, keep cats in the house. There are far too many reasons why cats should not be outdoors. But, if you insist on letting your cats outside, follow the recommendations as noted above for dogs.
HORSES and COWS
Provide protection from wind and precipitation, in very cold weather a horse will need a blanket, fresh water and food.
Rabbits kept in outdoor hutches need to be monitored as well. They should have plenty of straw to burrow in and should have an enclosed nest box. The hutch should be located in an area away from wind and precipitation. Plenty of fresh water and food should be available.